Matches 112,001 to 112,110 of 112,110

      «Prev «1 ... 221 222 223 224 225

 #   Notes   Linked to 
112001 _CRE: TIME 16:10:54
_CRE: @F70337946@ FAM
Family F30117
112002 _CRE: TIME 16:10:54
_CRE: FAMS @F54035632@
Briscoe, Priscilla (I102322)
112003 _CRE: TIME 16:11:26
_CRE: @F58623674@ FAM
Family F29438
112004 _CRE: TIME 16:11:26
_CRE: FAMS @F70337946@
Briscoe, Samuel Stone (I100718)
112005 _CRE: TIME 16:12:17
_CRE: FAMS @F86638933@
Keam, Isaac (I103654)
112006 _CRE: TIME 16:13:45
_CRE: @F90212900@ FAM
Family F29396
112007 _CRE: TIME 16:15:21
_CRE: @F12121288@ FAM
Family F29799
112008 _CRE: TIME 16:15:21
_CRE: FAMS @F33935490@
Westwood, Matilda Louisa (I102092)
112009 _CRE: TIME 16:15:54
_CRE: @F61333218@ FAM
Family F30419
112010 _CRE: TIME 16:17:00
_CRE: FAMS @F71586256@
Richards, Emma (I103622)
112011 _CRE: TIME 16:17:22
_CRE: HUSB @I43760749@
_CRE: TIME 16:17:00
_CRE: @F93714850@ FAM
Family F29948
112012 _CRE: TIME 16:17:55
_CRE: @F252988@ FAM
Family F30054
112013 _CRE: TIME 16:20:12
_CRE: @F38538924@ FAM
Family F29835
112014 _CRE: TIME 16:23:48
_CRE: HUSB @I99113984@
_CRE: TIME 16:22:33
_CRE: @F20511380@ FAM
Family F30112
112015 _CRE: TIME 16:24:05
_CRE: @F66507348@ FAM
Family F30111
112016 _CRE: TIME 16:26:16
_CRE: @F59042128@ FAM
Family F29868
112017 _CRE: TIME 16:33:48
_CRE: FAMS @F99233124@
Rossiter, Agnes (I103617)
112018 _CRE: TIME 16:34:33
_CRE: FAMS @F44175562@
Rossiter, Emma (I104160)
112019 _CRE: TIME 16:35:02
_CRE: FAMS @F99233124@
Whishaw, Reginald (I103752)
112020 _CRE: TIME 16:37:54
_CRE: FAMC @F70816096@
Rossiter, William (I100273)
112021 _CRE: TIME 16:39:55
_CRE: @F57502290@ FAM
Family F30527
112022 _CRE: TIME 16:39:55
_CRE: FAMS @F44175562@
Giffon, John (I104475)
112023 _CRE: TIME 16:42:36
_CRE: FAMC @F44175562@
Giffon, Dorothy (I103078)
112024 _CRE: TIME 16:42:58
_CRE: FAMC @F44175562@
Giffon, Gwendolyn (I102339)
112025 _CRE: TIME 16:52:32
_CRE: HUSB @I6378273@
_CRE: TIME 16:52:04
_CRE: @F59800999@ FAM
Family F30312
112026 _CRE: TIME 16:52:51
_CRE: @F71085216@ FAM
Family F30120
112027 _CRE: TIME 16:53:28
_CRE: @F25960766@ FAM
Family F29530
112028 _CRE: TIME 16:54:17
_CRE: HUSB @I6378273@
_CRE: TIME 16:53:33
_CRE: @F8314255@ FAM
Family F29878
112029 _CRE: TIME 16:55:32
_CRE: @F49043684@ FAM
Family F30138
112030 _CRE: TIME 16:59:44
_CRE: @F5275304@ FAM
Family F30313
112031 _CRE: TIME 16:59:44
_CRE: FAMS @F99037156@
Pugh, Hugh (I103926)
112032 _CRE: TIME 16:59:59
_CRE: FAMS @F99037156@
Price, Ann (I102920)
112033 _CRE: TIME 17:02:58
_CRE: FAMS @F5795003@
Evans, Mary (I101174)
112034 _CRE: TIME 17:03:52
_CRE: HUSB @I8336538@
_CRE: TIME 17:02:58
_CRE: @F19732223@ FAM
Family F29731
112035 _CRE: TIME 17:13:01
_CRE: HUSB @I13607578@
_CRE: TIME 17:09:35
_CRE: @F40494416@ FAM
Family F29215
112036 _CRE: TIME 17:17:33
_CRE: FAMS @F44526438@
Curitall, George (I103324)
112037 _CRE: TIME 17:18:00
_CRE: FAMS @F44526438@
Draughtgate, Margery (I102626)
112038 _CRE: TIME 17:18:39
_CRE: HUSB @I72345906@
_CRE: TIME 17:17:34
_CRE: @F45960848@ FAM
Family F30229
112039 _CRE: TIME 17:20:00
_CRE: HUSB @I20938934@
Family F29405
112040 _CRE: TIME 17:27:07
_CRE: @F59583634@ FAM
Family F29649
112041 _CRE: TIME 17:27:55
_CRE: HUSB @I15983526@
Family F29270
112042 _CRE: TIME 17:28:23
_CRE: HUSB @I1844998@
Family F29347
112043 _CRE: TIME 17:28:36
_CRE: HUSB @I11481408@
Family F29145
112044 _CRE: TIME 17:28:41
_CRE: @F57492164@ FAM
Family F30253
112045 _CRE: TIME 17:41:39
_CRE: FAMC @F69121380@
Swynfen, Ralph (I101327)
112046 _CRE: TIME 17:43:21
_CRE: FAMS @F98084224@
Sanders, Esther (I100047)
112047 _CRE: TIME 17:46:11
_CRE: @F69924192@ FAM
Family F29787
112048 _CRE: TIME 17:49:17
_CRE: FAMS @F68599292@
Layton, Phinehas (I103876)
112049 _CRE: TIME 17:51:24
_CRE: FAMS @F44914559@
Chetwynd, Walter (I104044)
112050 _CRE: TIME 17:51:56
_CRE: HUSB @I82641536@
_CRE: TIME 17:49:17
_CRE: @F34848952@ FAM
Family F30474
112051 _CRE: TIME 17:51:57
_CRE: FAMS @F95634255@
Clarke, Marie (I103228)
112052 _CRE: TIME 17:52:11
_CRE: @F85783328@ FAM
Family F30029
112053 _CRE: TIME 17:52:11
_CRE: FAMS @F66158134@
Hodgson, Elizabeth (I102100)
112054 _CRE: TIME 17:58:06
_CRE: @F33255631@ FAM
Family F30353
112055 _CRE: TIME 17:58:17
_CRE: FAMS @F33066249@
Willington, Thomas (I102030)
112056 _CRE: TIME 17:58:40
_CRE: HUSB @I3720344@
_CRE: TIME 09:04:57
_CRE: @F30190272@ FAM
Family F29302
112057 _CRE: TIME 18:00:17
_CRE: FAMC @F11903102@
Swynfen, Richard (I104047)
112058 _CRE: TIME 18:01:10
_CRE: HUSB @I98480928@
_CRE: TIME 09:06:23
_CRE: @F55247816@ FAM
Family F30547
112059 _CRE: TIME 18:01:44
_CRE: @F1560393@ FAM
Family F29776
112060 _CRE: TIME 18:01:44
_CRE: FAMS @F40274910@
Doughty, Jane (I101783)
112061 _CRE: TIME 18:02:45
_CRE: FAMS @F27489401@
Fretwell, Mabel (I102837)
112062 _CRE: TIME 18:11:06
_CRE: @F40379744@ FAM
Family F30486
112063 _CRE: TIME 18:11:38
_CRE: FAMS @F33985230@
Saunderson, Mabel (I103946)
112064 _CRE: TIME 18:20:40
_CRE: FAMC @F21881316@
Rossiter, William (I101351)
112065 _CRE: TIME 18:21:05
_CRE: FAMS @F23086241@
Rossiter, Harold (I101525)
112066 _CRE: TIME 18:21:25
_CRE: @F16757490@ FAM
Family F29751
112067 _CRE: TIME 18:21:25
_CRE: FAMS @F23086241@
Cullen, Elaine (I101297)
112068 _CRE: TIME 18:25:49
_CRE: HUSB @I67881906@
_CRE: TIME 15:26:57
_CRE: @F54392016@ FAM
Family F29972
112069 _CRE: TIME 18:26:44
_CRE: HUSB @I18425235@
_CRE: TIME 18:25:36
_CRE: @F45368413@ FAM
Family F29345
112070 _CRE: TIME 18:27:34
_CRE: FAMS @F60409956@
Price, John (I100619)
112071 _CRE: TIME 18:27:34
_CRE: _PLAC Adelaide,,South Australia,Australia
Family F29360
112072 _CRE: TIME 18:30:05
_CRE: HUSB @I44092475@
_CRE: TIME 15:28:43
_CRE: @F81890885@ FAM
Family F29214
112073 _CRE: TIME 18:30:15
_CRE: FAMC @F60409956@
Price, John (I101278)
112074 _CRE: TIME 18:30:36
_CRE: FAMC @F60409956@
Price, Joseph (I104687)
112075 _CRE: TIME 18:30:53
_CRE: FAMC @F60409956@
Price, Margaret (I101699)
112076 _CRE: TIME 18:31:07
_CRE: FAMC @F60409956@
Price, William (I102458)
112077 _CRE: TIME 18:31:22
_CRE: FAMC @F60409956@
Price, Edward (I100362)
112078 _CRE: TIME 18:31:48
_CRE: FAMS @F83309321@
Pinch, Luke (I100558)
112079 _CRE: TIME 18:33:16
_CRE: FAMS @F60409956@
Catherine (I100554)
112080 _CRE: TIME 18:33:53
_CRE: HUSB @I25071866@
_CRE: TIME 15:29:45
_CRE: @F45012034@ FAM
Family F29338
112081 _CRE: TIME 18:45:24
_CRE: @F50162268@ FAM
Family F29874
112082 _CRE: TIME 18:45:24
_CRE: FAMS @F4340562@
Hannah (I103035)
112083 {0.6.27} Stidworthy, Thomas William Edgecombe (I95420)
112084 {12.10.11} Warren, Enid May (I95549)
112085 {31.11.0} Stidworthy, Elizabeth (I95418)
112086 {geni:about_me} Edward Jervis Jervis, 2nd Viscount St Vincent (1767åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â➪∱1859) was a Viscount in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
He was born Edward Jervis Ricketts, the second son of William Henry Ricketts and Mary Jervis, daughter of Swynfen Jervis, Rector of Meaford, Staffordshire and sister of John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent. He inherited the title 2nd Viscount St Vincent onthe death of his uncle in 1823 and thereupon, by Royal licence, changed his name to Edward Jervis Jervis. He lived at the family seat Meaford Hall, Meaford, Staffordshire and was Lord of the Manor of Little Aston, near Stone (not to be confused with thehome of his son, Edward Swynfen Parker Jervis, of Little Aston Hall, then in the parish of Shenstone, Staffordshire, near Sutton Coldfield). He married twice, firstly to Mary Cassandra Twisleton, (by whom he had a son William, father of 3rd Viscount StVincent) and secondly to Mary Anne Parker of Park Hall, Staffordshire. He was succeeded by his grandson Carnegie Robert John Jervis, 3rd Viscount St Vincent
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
Jervis, Edward (I103591)
112087 {geni:about_me}
Charles Stewart Rolls (27 August 1877 - 12 July 1910) was a motoring and aviation pioneer. Together with Frederick Henry Royce he co-founded the Rolls-Royce car manufacturing firm. He was the first Briton to be killed in a flyingaccident, when the tail ofhis Wright Flyer broke off during a flying display near Bournemouth, England. He was aged 32.
Early lifeRolls was born in Berkeley Square, London, third son of the 1st Baron Llangattock. Despite his London birth, he retained a strong family connection with his ancestral home of The Hendre, near Monmouth, Wales. After attending Mortimer Vicarage Preparatory School in Berkshire, he was educated at Eton College where his developing interest in engines earned him the nickname dirty Rolls.
In 1894 he attended a private crammer in Cambridge which helped him gain entry to Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied Mechanical and Applied Science. In 1896, at the age of 18, he travelled to Paris to buy his first car, aPeugeot Phaeton, and joined the Automobile Club of France. His Peugeot is believed to have been the first car based in Cambridge, and one of the first three cars owned in Wales. An early motoring enthusiast, he joined the Self-Propelled Traffic Association which campaigned against the restrictions imposed on motor vehicles by the Locomotive Act, and became a founder member of the Automobile Club of Great Britain with which it merged 1897.
Rolls graduated from Cambridge University in 1898, and began working on the steam yacht Santa Maria followed by a position at the London and North Western Railway in Crewe. However, his talents lay more in salesmanship and motoring pioneering than practical engineering; in January 1903, with the help of åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£6,600 provided by his father, he started one of Britain's first car dealerships, C.S.Rolls & Co. based in Fulham, to import and sell French Peugeot and Belgian Minerva vehicles.
Rolls was a tall man, standing at about 1.95 m (6'5").
Partnership with Royce
Rolls was introduced to Henry Royce by a friend at the Automobile Club, Henry Edmunds, who was also a director of Royce Ltd. Edmunds showed him Royce's car and arranged the historic meeting between Rolls and Royce at the Midland Hotel, Manchester, on 4 May 1904. In spite of his preference for three or four cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the two-cylinder Royce 10 and in a subsequent agreement of 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. These would be of two, three, four and six cylinders and would be badged as Rolls-Royces.
The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904, although in the early advertising it was the name of Rolls that was emphasised over that of Royce. In 1906 Rolls and Royce formalised their partnership bycreating Rolls-Royce Limited, with Rolls appointed Technical Managing Director on a salary of åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£750 per annum plus 4% of the profits in excess of åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£10,000. Rolls provided the financial backing and business acumen to complement Royce's technical expertise.In1907 Rolls-Royce Limited bought out C.S. Rolls & Co.
Rolls put much effort into publicising the quietness and smoothness of the Rolls-Royce, and at the end of 1906 travelled to the USA to promote the new cars. The company was winning awards for the quality and reliability of its cars by 1907. But by 1909 Rolls' interest in the business was waning, and at the end of the year he resigned as Technical Managing Director and became a non-executive director.
Pioneer aviator
Rolls was also a pioneer aviator and initially, balloonist, making over 170 balloon ascents. He was a founding member of the Royal Aero Club in 1903 and was the second person in Britain to be licensed to fly by it. In 1903 he alsowon the Gordon Bennett Gold Medal for the longest single flight time.
By 1907 Rolls' interest turned increasingly to flying, and he tried unsuccessfully to persuade Royce to design an aero engine. In 1909 he bought one of six Wright Flyer aircraft built by Short Brothers under licence from the Wright Brothers, and made morethan 200 flights. On 2 June 1910, he became the first man to make a non-stop double crossing of the English Channel by plane, taking 95 minutes åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â➪∱ faster than Blåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩riot. For this feat, which included the first East-bound crossing of the English Channel, hewas awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aero Club. There is a statue to commemorate the flight in the town square at Monmouth and at Dover.
On 12 July 1910, at the age of 32, Rolls was killed in an air crash at Hengistbury Airfield Bournemouth when the tail of his Wright Flyer broke off during a flying display. He was the first Briton to be killed in an aeronauticalaccident, and the eleventhinternationally. A statue in his memory, in which he is seen holding a biplane model, was erected in Agincourt Square, Monmouth. A further memorial to him is situated in the bottom playing field of St Peter's School, which was built on the site of Hengistbury Airfield. There is also a statue of him beside Dover harbour in Kent as a memorial to him being the first person to cross the channel in both directions during one flight, on June 2, 1910.
His grave lies in a little known corner of Monmouthshire at the church of Llangattock-Vibon-Avel, where many of the Rolls family lie buried in various family tombs. His grave is just below Llangattock Manor and bears the inscription Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God.
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:26
Rolls, Charles Stewart (I103719)
112088 {geni:about_me} Jervis was born at St Marylebone, second son of William Jervis Jervis, and grandson of the 2nd Viscount St Vincent. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Oxford.[1] He played cricket for Oxford University in1848 and played a minor game for Stoneleigh in 1849. He played for MCC in 1850 when he never had a chance to bat, and in 1852 when he made his top score of 17. Also in 1852 he showed up for Hereford against an All England XI.
In 1853 Jervis was admitted to the Inner Temple as a barrister-at-law and in 1859 played for the Gentlemen of England. Later, he had a legal practice at Derby and was playing against All England XIs for Staveley in 1867 and 1869 and for Chesterfield. By 1871 he was living at The Elms, Duffield Road, Derby. He helped to establish the Derbyshire County C.C. and was its President from 1871 until 1887.[2] He played just one match for Derbyshire in 1873 in which he scored 0 and 6 in a defeat by Lancashire. Hewas a right-handed batsman and played 8 innings in 5 first-class matches with a top score of 17 and an average of 6.80.[3]
Jervis died at Quarndon Hall, Derbyshire at the age of 82.
In 1864 William Jervis married Harriet Wilmot Sitwell, daughter of Robert Sacheverel Sitwell of Derby. She died in 1875 and he remarried a year later, to his cousin Mary Maude Parker Jervis. He was widowed again within three years, and in 1882 he marriedMary Stepney, the widow of a captain in the Derby Militia. Although married three times, he had no children.[1]
Jervis was the uncle of Lord Harris, an English cricketer born in Trinidad who played four Tests for the English cricket team.

Grandson of 2nd Viscount St. Vincent
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
Jervis, William Monk (I103232)
112089 {geni:occupation} 3rd viscount st vincent

{geni:about_me} wykhamist short half 1839
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
Jervis, Carnegie Robert John (I100937)
112090 {geni:occupation} Accountant
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:29
Powell, Jonathan Gwyn (I102847)
112091 {geni:occupation} Admiral, 1st Earl of St. Vincent

John Jervis entered the Royal Navy in 1749, and as a Lieutenant distinguished himself at Quebec in 1759, where he was promoted Commander. In 1775, he was promoted Captain of Foudroyant (84 guns). He fought at Brest in 1778 and captured La Pegase of 74 guns in 1782, and was made KB. In 1793 he commanded the naval part of the successful expedition against the French West Indies Islands. In 1795, as Admiral, he took command of the Mediterranean fleet, andon 14 February 1797 with 15 sail, defeated the Spanish fleet of 27 off Cape St. Vincent capturing four ships, with the genius of Nelson playing a decisive part. He was created Baron Jervis, of Meaford, and Earl of St. Vincent witha pension of åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£3,000pa. He returned home through ill health after repressingthe mutiny at Cadiz, and commanded the Channel Fleet. He became First Lord of the Admiralty from 1801-4, serving in the Cabinet of the unpopular Henry Addingtom, Viscount Sidmouth, reforming innumerable naval abuses. At this time he also became ViscountSt. Vincent, with remainder to his nephews, William Henry Ricketts and Edward Jervis Ricketts successively and after them to hisniece Mary, wife of the 7th Earl of Northesk and her male heirs. He resumed the Channel command in 1806-7 and was appointed Admiral of the Fleet, dying on 23 March 1823. At this time the Barony and Earldom became extinct, and the Viscountcy devolved to his surviving nephew, Edward Jervis Ricketts, who became the second Viscount and assumed the surname Jervis by Royal Licence ontaking the title (which was a condition of the inheritance).
This inheritance was not without complications. Wiliam Henry Ricketts (the younger) had predeceased the Earl, but had a daughter, Martha, by his wife, Lady Elizabeth nee Lambart (daughter of the Earl of Cavan), who he divorced in 1799. Martha inheritedthe Earl's Essex properties, marrying first Osborn Markham, and then Sir William Cockburn, Bt.; in each case she retained the name Jervis after the marriage. William Henry also had an illegitimate son by a liaison with Cecilia Jane Vinet. This son, whotook the name William Henry Jervis, also became an admiral. His son, the Rev. W. H. E. R. Jervis, claimed the viscountcy in 1879, and advertised to find a marriage certificate for his grandparents. One appeared in Devon, but was found to be a forgery,andthe Rev. Jervis disappeared hurriedly abroad. Unfortunately the Earl disliked the second viscount's elder son, William, intensely and did his best todisinherit him, although he could not avoid him succeeding his father to the viscountcy or from thenavalpension of åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£3,000pa granted by parliament. In fact he died before his father, and never did succeed, so the title passed tohis son Carnegie Robert John Jervis, who became the 3rd Viscount and the title remains with that branch of the family. The 3rdViscount inherited Meaford, but sold it in 1861 to his half-aunt Mary Anne Sombre (later Lady Forester) nee Jervis. A part of the Earl's fortune was set up in an accumulation trust for the benefit of the second Viscount's eldest son by his second marriage toMary Anne Parker, niece of the Earl's wife. Their eldest son John Edwardwas the heir, but died unmarried in1837 at the age of 26, at which time his younger brother Edward Swynfen inherited the benefit of this trust. Edward Swynfen alsoinherited anot inconsiderable fortune from Thomas Hawe Parker on his death in 1856, following which he and his family took the name Parker-Jervis in 1861.

{geni:about_me} In 1787 he attained flag rank, and in 1788 he married his cousin Martha Parker. With the outbreak of war with Revolutionary France (note: at this point France was not under Napoleon as Napoleon's coup did not takeplace until October of 1799) he was put into service in the West Indies co-operating with the Army in the conquest of the French islands. On return to Great Britain in 1795 he was promoted to Admiral. In November he took command in the Mediterranean, where he maintained the blockade of Toulon, and aided the allies of Great Britain in Italy. He was an excellent logistician, and kept his fleet well supplied and healthy, closely blocking Toulon until his position became untenable. When Spain capitulated to France his fleet abandonedElba and withdrew to Gibraltar. He ordered Nelson to complete the withdrawal from Elba; Nelson later joined the fleet just prior to the Battle of Cape StVincent.[2]
He was Commander-in-Chief of the British Mediterranean Fleet from 1796 to 1799. One of his chief duties was to watch the Spanish fleet at Cadiz. He defeated the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. For this victory he was created Baron Jervis,of Meaford in the County of Stafford, and Earl of St Vincent.[3] He also despatched a successful expedition to capture Minorca.
That same year, however, the Spithead and Nore mutinies threatened the Navy. He prevented any outbreak in his command through foresight and severity, including the flogging and hanging of sailors and public berating of his officers, one of whom, Sir JohnOrde challenged him to a duel. Nevertheless, he raised the discipline of the Navy to a higher level than it had reached before; he was always ready to promote good officers, and the efficiency of the squadron with which Lord Nelson won the Battle of the Nile was largely due to him.
Lord St Vincent resigned his command temporarily in 1799, due to his failing health, but he recovered and resumed command the following year, and became First Lord of the Admiralty in 1801, also being created Viscount St Vincent,of Meaford in the County of Stafford, with a special remainder.
As First Lord of the Admiralty, Jervis started improving the administration of the Navy. As a result of his uncovering of corruption in supplying the Navy, a Royal Commission of Enquiry into irregularities within the Navy Board, who were responsible for maintaining the dockyards and supply, was created. It revealed widespread corruption and Lord Melville, formerly treasurer of the Navy and First Lord was impeached. This made Jervis unpopular with some politicians. When the government fell in May 1804, Jervis was obliged to retire from his post. However, he was once more asked to command the Channel Fleet from 1806 to 1807, and retired from the Navy in 1811. In 1821 he was promotedto Admiral of the Fleet on the occasion of the coronation of King George IV.
When he died in 1823, the Barony of Jervis and the Earldom of St Vincent became extinct, but the Viscountcy of St Vincent passed to his nephew.
There is a monument to him in St. Paul's Cathedral, and portraits of him at different periods of his life are numerous.
"I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. I say only they will not come by sea." addressing the House of Lords as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1801.
Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent GCB, PC[1] (9 January 1735 åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â➪∱ 14 March 1823) was an admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Earl St Vincent served throughout the latter half of the 18th century andinto the 19th, and was an active commander during the Seven Year's War, American War of Independence, French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic Wars. He is best known for his victory at the 1797 Battleof Cape Saint Vincent, from whichhe earned his titles, and as a patron of Horatio Nelson.
Jervis was also recognised by both political and military contemporaries as a fine administrator and naval reformer.[4] As Commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean, between 1795 and 1799 he introduced a series of severe standing orders to avert mutiny. Heapplied those orders to both seamen and officers alike, a policy that made him a controversial figure. He took his disciplinarian system of command with him when he took command of the Channel Fleet in 1799. In 1801, as First Lord of the Admiralty he introduced a number of reforms that, though unpopular at the time, made the Navy more efficient and more self sufficient. He introduced innovations including block making machinery atPortsmouth Royal Dockyard. St Vincent was known for his generosity to officers he considered worthy of reward and his swift and often harsh punishment of those to those he felt deserved it.
Jervis' entry in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography by P. K. Crimmin describes his contribution to history: "His importance lies in his being the organizer of victories; the creator of well-equipped, highly efficient fleets; and in training a school of officers as professional, energetic, and devoted to the service as himself."[5]
Early life
John Jervis was born in Meaford, Staffordshire on 9 January 1735[6] the second son[7] of Swynfen and Elizabeth Jervis.[8] His father was a barrister, counsellor to the Admiralty Board and Auditor of Greenwich Hospital.[9] SwynfenJervis intended that his son should follow him to the bar.[10] The young Jervis was educated at Burton-upon-Trent Grammar School[11] and subsequently at Reverend Swinden's Academy in Greenwich, London.[12][13]
Early naval career
At the age of thirteen Jervis ran away and joined the navy at Woolwich, London.[14] After a short time he returned home as he had heard his family were very upset at his disappearance.[14] Lady Jane Hamilton (mother of Sir WilliamHamilton) and Lady Burlington[15] became aware of Jervis' desire to join the navy and lobbied his family on his behalf. Eventually they introduced the Jervis family to Admiral George Townshend who agreed to take the boy aboard one of his ships.[16]
On 4 January 1749 Jervis entered the navy as an able seaman aboard the 50-gun Gloucester on her way to Jamaica.[9] On arrival in the West Indies, Jervis was detached on HM sloop Ferret to the Mosquito Coast where he saw constant service against Spanish guarda-costas and privateers.[17] When Townshend quit the West Indies he discharged Jervis into the Severn under Admiral Thomas Cotes. Cotes' flag captain Henry Dennis rated Jervis as a midshipman. On 31 July 1754 Jervis moved to the 24-gun Sphinx.[18] Jervis commented in a letter to his sister: "my chief employ when from my duty is reading studying navigation and perusing my old letters of which I have almost enough to make an octavo volume".[18] Whilst in Jamaica, the young Jervis drew funds against his father's account with a local banker. When the reply came from England that the withdrawal could not be honoured, the midshipman found himself in debt. Jervis was forced to quit his mess and live on ship's rations in order to pay off the loan. The event deeply affected the young Jervis who swore never to "draw another bill without the certainty of it being paid."[19][20] Sphinx was paid off at Spithead on 7 November 1754. Jervis was assigned to the 20-gun Seaford in December of the same year and then fromthe end of December until February 1755 was assigned to HM Yacht William and Mary under the navigationalexpert Captain John Campbell.[21]
Jervis passed his lieutenant's examination on 2 January 1755[11] and was assigned as sixth lieutenant to the first-rate Royal George of 100 guns.[22] By March, he had moved to third lieutenant of the 60-gun Nottingham.[22] The Nottingham was part of Edward Boscawen's fleet that attempted to prevent French reinforcements reaching New France.[23] On 31 March 1756 Jervis moved to the 74-gun HMS Devonshire and on 22 June he was promoted to be fourth lieutenantof the 90-gun Prince[22] under Captain Charles Saunders in the Mediterranean. When the captain was promoted to admiral, Jervis followed him to the 74-gun Culloden in November 1756.[24] In January 1757 Jervis was promoted to temporary command of HMS Experiment. In her, he fought a large French privateer in an indecisive action off Cape Gata.[24] When the captain of the Experiment regained his health Jervis moved back to the Culloden. In June 1757, he followed Saunders to the 90-gun HMS St George. Jervis returned to England in temporary command of the 80-gun Foudroyant, a ship that had been captured by Henry Osborn's fleet at the Battle of Cartagena. He followed Saunders once more when the admiral was promoted to command the North American station; Jervis was promoted to first lieutenant of HMS Prince.[25]
Quebec and promotion to captain
The fleet, part of an expedition to capture the French possessions in North America, left England in February 1759. They stopped first at Louisbourg which had been captured from the French the previous year. By June, the ice alongthe Saint Lawrence Riverhad broken up and the fleet along with the military transports headed up river to the assault of Quebec City.[26] On 15 May 1759, Jervis had been promoted acting commander of the sloop HMS Porcupine.[11][27] In this command Jervis impressed General JamesWolfe in the preparations which led to the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Porcupine and the frigate Halifax led the armed transports past Quebec to land up river. One biographer, Jedediah Tucker, notes that as the approach was so critical, both Wolfe andthe subsequently famous James Cook boarded the Porcupine to ensure the success of the mission.[28]
For his efforts Jervis was promoted commander and took command of HMS Scorpion.[29] Jervis returned to England in September but immediately returned to North America in command of the Albany. In May 1760 Jervis was attached to Admiral Sir George Rodney'sChannel squadron.
In October 1760 he was made post-captain in command of the 44-gun Gosport.[30][31] Gosport had on board a young midshipman, George Elphinstone, later Viscount Keith, who took over Jervis' command in the Mediterranean after Jervis'departure in 1799.[32] In1762, HMS Gosport, HMS Danae and HMS Superb under Captain Joshua Rowley, convoyed the East and West Indian trade to the westward, and successfully protected it from the squadron of Commodore de Ternay.[27]
By the end of 1763 the Gosport has been paid off and Jervis remained unemployed until February 1769[30] when he was appointed to the 32-gun HMS Alarm,[33][34] the first coppered warship in the Royal Navy.[35] He was tasked with delivering bullion to the English merchants in Genoa. During his time in Genoa two Turkish slaves escaped a Genoese galley and hid aboard one of Alarm's boats. They were forcibly removed; Jervis made an official protest and promisedretaliation if they were not handed over. The slaves were produced and Jervis took custody of them.[36]
On 30 March 1770 the Alarm was driven ashore off Marseilles[37] but with the efforts of Jervis, the crew and the local French authorities under the governor of Marseilles, Georges Renåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩ Le Peley de Plåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩ville she was brought off andrepaired. Jervis personally returned to Marseilles with a letter of thanks from the Board of the Admiralty to the governor for his assistance.[38][39]
In 1771 Alarm returned to England to collect the Duke of Gloucester, King George III's brother in order that he could winter in Italy.[40] He lived aboard with his entourage until May 1772 when Alarm returned to England and was paid off.[41]
Touring Europe and Russia
Between October 1772 and June 1775, Jervis travelled extensively. He began in France where he studied the language and made observations about French life.[42] He accompanied Captain Samuel Barrington to Russia where they spent time in Saint Petersburg and inspected the arsenal and dockyards at Kronstadt and took a tour of the yacht designed by Sir Charles Knowles for Catherine of Russia.[43] The pair continued on to Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany. All the while Jervis made notes on defences, harbour charts and safe anchorages. They came home via the Netherlands,[44] Jervis once again making extensive studies of the area and taking copious notes describing any useful information. He and Barrington then took a private cruise along the Channel coast calling at various harbours including Brest, making and improving their charts as they went.[44] When Jervis later became the Commander-in-Chief of the Channel Fleet he was aided significantly in his blockade of Brest by these charts. In later years, he commented: "Had the young Captain Jervis not performed such a complete survey of this port then the Earl St Vincent would not have been able to effect such a thorough blockade of it."[45]
American War of Independence
First Battle of Ushant
At the outbreak of the American War of Independence in 1775 Jervis was given the command of HMS Kent; however, she was surveyed by the dockyard and found unfit for service.[46] He was therefore appointed instead to command of HMSFoudroyant,[34] the ship he had brought to England as a prize seventeen years earlier. For the first few years of the war, the French supplied arms, funding, and military advice on an informal and limited basis to the newly emerging nation of America. With the signing of the Treaty of Alliance in 1778 and the creation of the Franco-American alliance, the war widened.[47][48] Jervis spent the first few years of the war patrolling the Channel in Foudroyant without seeing any significant action, but as the war reached Europe Jervis was placed under the command of Admiral Augustus Keppel. The Channel fleet, under Keppel, sighted the French fleet intending to enter Brest on 23 July. TheBritish fleet of 30 ships of the line chased the French fleet of 29 ships and engaged them on 27 Julyin what became known as the First Battle of Ushant.[49][50] The battle was indecisive and in the political aftermath Jervis provided a stalwart defence of Admiral Keppel at the latter's court-martial, helping to secure Keppel's acquittal.[51][52]
Relieving Gibraltar and capture of the Påⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩gase
Jervis remained in Foudroyant attached to the Channel Fleet and for a short time acted as flag captain to Admiral Molyneux Shuldham.[53] In 1780 Jervis was with Admiral Rodney when the British fleet relieved Gibraltar. In 1781 hewas with Admiral George Darby at the second relief of Gibraltar. On 19 April 1782 Jervis was with his old friend and travelling companion when a ship in Admiral Barringtonåⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄âⲤ⥠s squadron sighted a French convoy leaving Brest. The squadrongave chase and Foudroyant caught and engagedthe French 74-gun Påⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩gase. After an engagement of more than an hour Påⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩gase struck.[56] Jervis himself was wounded in the attack.[57] For his serviceshe was invested as a Knight ofthe Bath on 19 May 1782. He was again at the relief of Gibraltar with Earl Howe's fleet in 1782 and took part in the indecisive Battle of Cape Spartel.[60] Jervis was promoted commodore and hoisted his broad pennant in the 50-gunHMS Salisbury[59] in December 1782, with orders to proceed tothe West Indies. Due to thepeace negotiations his orders were rescinded and he struck his pennant on 14 January 1783.
Marriage and political office
During the peace Jervis married his cousin Martha, daughter of Lord Chief Baron Sir Thomas Parker. Jervis was also returned as MP for Launceston in 1783. Jervis began his political career in earnest and voted for Pitt's parliamentary reforms and against Charles James Fox and his East India Bill. During the elections of 1784 Jervis stood for election in the independent borough of Great Yarmouth where he was returned as MP alongside Henry Beaufoy.[64] Jervisthen voted against Pitt's further bills for reformbut supported him once more during the 1788åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â➪∱1799 Regency Crisis.
On 24 September 1787 Jervis was promoted rear-admiral of the blue[65][66][67] and hoisted his flag in the 74-gun Carnatic for several months during the tensions arising from the Prussian invasion of the Netherlands.[68] In 1790 Jervis was recalled to service once more and moved his flag to the second-rate Prince during the Nootka Sound crisis that threatened war between England and Spain.[69] Also in 1790 Jervis was promoted rear-admiral of the white[70] and stood down as MP for Great Yarmouth and stood instead for the Chipping Wycombe seat to which he was returned as MP alongside the Marquess of Lansdowne.[71][72] With his interest in politics wavering he spoke rarely and then almost exclusively on naval matters. In 1794 he resigned his seat and did notstand again for political office.[73] In 1792 Jervis proposed a scheme to alleviate the financial hardship of superannuated seamen.[74] He later withdrew the proposal as Viscount Melville promised that the matter would be addressed by the Admiralty Board.[75]
French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Jervis was promoted vice-admiral of the blue[76] and was appointed to command of the Leeward Islands station.[77] Jervis took with him an army that, combined with the navy, formed a joint military expedition. The goal of the expedition was to capture French colonies and thereby weaken France's international trade. The army commander was Sir Charles Grey, a friend and political ally.[78] Jervis hoisted his flag in HMS Boyne. He took Grey's son, George Grey,as his flag-captain.[79] The combined forces captured the French colonies of Martinique, Guadeloupe and Saint Lucia[80][81][82][83] and restored monarchist rule.
The French counter-attacked and recaptured Guadeloupe on 2 June 1794. Jervis and Grey landed a force to recapture the island but were repulsed by the reinforced French garrison and the British expedition withdrew.[84] In November1794 Admiral Benjamin Caldwell replaced Jervis. Disputes over prize money were widely held as the reason that Jervis and Grey were not awarded peerages for their service.[85] Grey and Jervis' enemies proposed a vote of censure against the General and Admiral. The vote itself was negative.[86] The prize money for the capture of the three islands, when finally calculated, amounted to åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£70,000.00 that was due to the officers and men of the navy.[87] Jervis andGrey were however awarded the thanks of both Houses of Parliament for theirservices.[88] On 12 April 1794 Jervis was promoted vice-admiral of the white.[89]
Command of the Mediterranean Fleet
Jervis was promoted admiral of the blue on 1 June 1795 and appointed to command the Mediterranean Fleet.[90][91] Unfortunately the Boyne had caught fire on 1 May 1795[92][93] and had blown up in Spithead, the result of an accident,[94] and Jervis lost almost all of his possessions.[95] Jervis went to take command of the Mediterranean fleet in the frigate Lively[96] and once more took George Grey as his flag-captain. Jervis also took Robert Calder as his captain of the fleet.[96] On arrival at Gibraltar Jervis took HMS Victory as his flagship.[96] Amongst Jervis' subordinates were Captains Horatio Nelson, Cuthbert Collingwood and Thomas Troubridge. Jervis began a close blockade of Toulon and Nelson was assigned the task of aiding the Austrian army along the Italian coast. By September 1796 the British presence in the Mediterranean had become untenable.[97] Napoleon had beaten Britain's Austrian allies who were in disarray[98] and, in October, Spain had surrendered and allied themselves to the French.[99] Jervis recalled Admiral Robert Mann to aid in the blockade of Cadiz.[99] Mann took his ships instead to Spithead.[100] Jervis abandoned Corsica between September and November 1796 and withdrew his forces to Gibraltar.[101] A Spanish fleet made up of twentyfour line-of-battle ships and seven frigates sailed from Toulon on 1 February 1797. Jervis' fleet of tenships-of-the-line was patrolling off Cape Saint Vincent and was subsequently joined by five more under Sir William Parker. The Spanish admiral, Josåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩ deCåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥥¥rdoba, had taken his ships into the Atlantic to weather a storm and was making his way to Cadiz when the two fleets caught sight of each other.
The Battle of Cape St. Vincent
The British and Spanish fleet sighted one another at dawn on 14 February 1797. The British fleet had fifteen line-of-battle ships against the twenty four Spanish ships.[102] On the quarter-deck of Victory, Jervis and his flag captain, Robert Calder counted the ships. It was at this point Jervis discovered that he was outnumbered nearly two-to-one:
"There are eight sail of the line, Sir John"
"Very well, sir"
"There are twenty sail of the line, Sir John"
"Very well, sir"
"There are twenty five sail of the line, Sir John"
"Very well, sir"
"There are twenty seven sail of the line, Sir John"
"Enough, sir, no more of that; the die is cast, and if there are fifty sail I will go through them"
A passenger aboard Victory, Captain Benjamin Hallowell, achieved a brief notoriety for slapping the admiral on the back and calling out "Thatåⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄âⲤ⥠s right Sir John, that's right. By God, we shall give them a damnedgood licking!"
During the battle Nelson, in command of HMS Captain, wore out of line and performed a stunning feat by capturing two of the enemy vessels within moments. Nelson and his crew boarded and captured one and crossed her deck and boarded and captured the second, which had collided in the smoke and general melee of the battle.[108][109] The move was later feted by the public and press and dubbed åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪╴â➽¥Nelsonåⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄âⲤ⥠s patent bridge forboarding first-rates.åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â⥥¤â➪⤝[110] Whenthe Spanish retreated Jervis did notpress his advantagebut consolidated his victory and began the lengthy job of repairing both his ships and crews.[108] The British had suffered casualties of 73 killed and 227 wounded.[111] Sir John did not mention Nelson's achievement in his initial despatch to the Admiraltydespite Nelson's obvious contribution to the success of the battle.[112][113] In later despatches Jervis did mention Nelson. In one anecdote, when discussing the battle with his flag-captain, Sir Robert, who had been mentioned in thedespatch and had been awarded a knighthood for his services, brought up the issue of Nelson disobedience of the admiral's orders for having worn outof the line of battle in order to engage the enemy. Jervis silenced him by saying: "It certainly was so, andif you ever commitsuch a breach of your orders, I will forgive you also."[114]
Despite the capture of only four vessels, the Battle of Cape Saint Vincent became celebrated as an outstanding victory and the awards and recognition far outweighed the achievement. The bad news of the evacuation of the Mediterranean, the capitulation ofthe Spanish and the Italian city-states and the defeat of the Austrian army alongside the increasing threat of a French invasion of Britain had depressed the politicians and general public. A victory, likethat of Cape Saint Vincent, was more important forthe morale[115] of the country as a whole than its military ramifications. Both Jervis and Nelson were hailed as heroes and Jervis was made Baron Jervis of Meaford and Earl St Vincent.[38][118][119] Songs were written about Jervis and the battle and therewas a general feeling of relief in both the Government and people of Britain.[120] Nelson for his services was invested as a Knight of the Bath.[121][122] The now Earl St Vincent was gifted a pension for life of åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£3,000.00 per year.[123]The City ofLondonpresented him with the Freedom of the City in a gold box valued at 100 guineas and awarded both him and Nelson a ceremonial sword.[124][125] The presentation box and sword are both currently held at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. The twoswordsawarded Jervis and Nelson were the first of their kind to be issued by the City of London.[126][127]St Vincent was awarded the thanks of both Houses of Parliament and given a gold medal by the King.[126] The London Gazette published an advertisementin1798regarding the prize money that was due to the officers and men who had fought at the battle. The sum quoted was åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£140,000.00 of which, as admiral, Jervis was entitled to a sizeable share.[128] Jervis resumed his blockadeof the Spanish fleetin Cadiz.
Mutiny and discipline
During 1797 there was considerable discontent amongst the seamen of the Royal Navy. This discontent manifested itself at the Nore and at Spithead when the greater part of the Channel Fleet rose up against their officers. These mutinies were not overly violent and the officers were put ashore and the heads of the mutinies established their own order and kept the ships under "committee" control until their collective demands were met. The mutineers demands ranged from discontent at cruel officers to poor pay and long sea service without shore leave. There were other mutinies throughout the Navy that year, most notably HMS Hermione and HMS Marie Antoinette both on the Jamaica station.These mutinies resulted in the crews killing their officers and taking their ships into enemy held ports.[132]
Jervis had the reputation as a disciplinarian and put in place a new system that would ensure that the men in the Mediterranean fleet did not mutiny. To begin with the admiral wrote a new set of standing orders. For example, Jervis divided the seamen andmarines and berthed the two separately putting the marines between the officers aft and the men forward.[133] Thus he created an effective barrier between officers and potentially unruly crews.
Jervis discouraged conversation in Irish[133] though he did not ban it. He ordered the marine detachments to be paraded every morning and, if there was a band available, for "God save the King" to be played. The marine detachmentwas then to remain armed at all times. Marines and soldiers were also excused from duties in regard to the general running of the ship.[134]
In order to keep his crews active and to ensure that the Spanish did not perceive that there might be discontent in the fleet, Jervis ordered the nightly bombardment of Cadiz in his own words to "Divert the animal."[135][136]
The Admiral isolated the ships from one another to minimise collusion and the opportunities the men might have to band together in mutiny.[137] St Vincent did ensure, however, that the men under his command were cared for. When the stock of tobacco ran low the Admiral ensured that the supply was renewed from his own funds.[138] When the postmaster in Lisbon detained the letters and packets arriving from England for the men, Jervis set up a post office aboard his flagship HMS Ville de Paris to receive anddistribute all the letters that arrived for both seamen, marines and officers.[139]
Jervis strictly adhered to the Articles of War and individual regulations that he had written for his fleet. Any infraction was dealt with harshly and he was renowned for treating both officers and seamen with the same harsh discipline.[138][140][141] Asan example, one officer who allowed his boats crew to plunder a fishing boat was placed before a court martial and it was ordered that he be "degraded from the rank of Midshipman in the most ignominious manner by having his uniform stripped from his backonthe quarter deck of the (ship unknown)[sic]. before the whole ship's company and to be further disposed of as the Commander-in-chief shall direct. To be muleted of his pay now due to him for his services on board any ship of his Majesty's service and toberendered incapable of ever serving as an Officer or a Petty Officer in any of His Majesty's ships."[142] Jervis later personally directed that the midshipman should have his head shaved, a notice hung around his neck describing his crime and that heshouldbe solely responsible for the cleaning of the head (naval term for the communal toilets situated at the bow of the ship) until further notice.[142] In another incident, St Vincent instructed that two men aboard HMS St George who were tried for mutinyonaSaturday were executed on Sunday.[143] The men were duly executed but Admiral Charles Thompson raised an objection to formal executions on the Sabbath and Jervis wrote to the Board of Admiralty demanding Thompson's removal or accepting his resignation.TheBoard relieved Thompson. On 9 July 1797 Nelson wrote to Jervis congratulating him in his resolve and wholeheartedly supporting his decision to execute the men on a Sunday.[144]
Jervis could also be exceptionally kind when he felt that the situation warranted it. One day, whilst the fleet was becalmed and the summer heat became intolerable the men of the flagship were ordered to bathe. The men leapt overthe side to swim in a sailthat had been lowered over the side and the captain of one of the tops jumped in wearing his trousers. In one of the pockets he had his prize money and back pay that he had been saving for many years. The bank notes were soon destroyed and when the man came aboard and discovered what had happened he began to weep. The Admiral saw the man and asked the problem. One of his officers told him and St Vincent went to his cabin. When hereturned he had the crew mustered and called the man forward. "Roger Odell you are convicted, Sir, by your own appearance of tarnishing the British oak with tears. What have you to say in your defence why you should not receive what you deserve?" The man told him of his troubles and St Vincent replied "Roger Odell you are one ofthe best men in this ship you are moreover a captain of a top and in my life I never saw a man behave himself better in battle than you in the Victory did in the action with the Spanish fleet. To show therefore that your Commander-in-chief will never passover merit wheresoever he may find it. There is your money Sir!" The Earl produced åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£70 of his own money and presented it to the dumbstruck sailor "but no more tears mind, no more tears Sir."[147]
When Nelson returned to the Mediterranean, St Vincent wrote to Earl Spencer, First Lord of the Admiralty: "I do assure your Lordship that the arrival of Admiral Nelson has given me new life; you could not have gratified me more than in sending him. His presence in the Mediterranean is so very essential."[148] St Vincent detached Nelson to pursue Napoleon in his invasion of Egypt[149] Rear-Admiral Sir John Orde who was senior to Nelson complained publicly and bitterly about what he considered a personal slight.[150] Jervis ordered Orde home.[151] Orde requested that he be court-martialled in order that he might have the opportunity to clear his name. The Board refused.[152] Orde then requested that St Vincent be brought before a court-martial. Again, the Board refused.[153] The Board censured Jervis for not having supported his subordinates.[154] Orde later challenged the ageing admiral to a duel. The challenge became public knowledge and the king ordered Jervis to decline.[155] Before the challenge was formally declined, Orde wrote to the Board to inform them that he had withdrawn it.[156]
When the men aboard the Marlborough refused to execute a man for mutinous behaviour and their captain did nothing, the Earl threatened the captain with replacement and had boats from the rest of the fleet armed with carronades surround the Marlborough; hethen threatened to sink the ship if his orders were not carried out. The man was duly executed. St Vincent turned to an officer beside him watching the mutineer hanging from the yard arm and said "Discipline is preserved, Sir!"[157]
Between 1797 and 1799 alongside the suppression of mutiny Jervis set himself the task of improving the dockyards and defences of Gibraltar. After the Battle of the Nile the dockyards, under Jervis' watchful eye, managed to successfully repair most of thefleet.[158] Lady Lavinia Bingham, wife of Earl Spencer wrote to St Vincent to congratulate him for having provided the necessary tools for Nelson to have achieved the victory he did at the Nile. "Never diddisinterested zeal and friendship meet with a brighter reward than yours has reaped in this victory of your gallant friend."[159] Nelson commented that he had "never beheld a fleet equal to Sir John Jervis'"[160] Having had greatdifficulty supplying the fleet with fresh water the Admiral arranged for large tanks to be built in Gibraltar.[161] On 14 February 1799 St Vincent was created admiral of the white. Constant service and approaching old age meant that the admiral became increasingly unwell. Despite his failing health, St Vincent was reluctant to relinquish command and the Board reluctant to supersede him. By 17 June 1799 he had no choice but to resign his command and returnto England. During his time ashore the Earl lived in Rochetts, Essex with his wife.[162]
Command of the Channel Fleet
As his health had improved he was given command of the Channel Fleet. St Vincent was to comment "The King and the government require it and the discipline of the British Navy demand it. It is of no consequence to me whether I dieafloat of ashore. The dieis cast."[163]
He took command of the Channel fleet in HMS Namur on 26 April 1800 and took up a close blockade of Brest. Once at Brest he transferred to the Ville de Paris of 110 guns and took Sir Thomas Troubridge as his captain of the fleet. He was also accompanied byhis personal physician, Doctor Andrew Baird.[164] Baird was later to become instrumental in the plans of the commander-in-chief and the health and well being of the Channel fleet.[162][165]
St Vincent's appointment was not popular amongst the officers of the Channel fleet.[166][167] His reputation as a strict disciplinarian had followed him from the Mediterranean and he immediately issued orders banning officers andcaptain to sleep ashore and forbade them from travelling more than three miles from their ship.[168][169] Amongst other strict regulations introduced were orders that ships were to be repaired where possible at sea and that Ushantwas to be the official rendezvous for the Channel fleet rather than the traditional Torbay. The wife of one of his captains is said to have toasted the news of his appointment with the line "May his next glass of wine choke the wretch."[170] Ships were forbidden to go to Spithead without specific writtenorders from the Admiral or Admiralty.[171][172] During his command he remained with the fleet and became respected by the officers and men for sufferingtheir hardships with them.
With the charts that he had made with Barrington in 1775 the inshore squadron at Brest was able to keep a much tighter blockade. In one incident, the inshore squadron sighted several French ships leaving Brest. Sir Edward Pellew,captain of HMS Impåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩tueux,gave chase. The rear admiral in charge of the inshore squadron recalled him, worried that the Impåⲥâ➽¥å¢â➪⤄â⥤➩tueux would run aground. The French escaped. After several letters went back and forth between the two admirals, St Vincent, tired ofhis subordinate's excuses, took the entire offshore squadron and sailed them between the inshore squadron and the shore thus proving that the ships had a shallow enough draught to have given chase and captured the French. St Vincent then wrote to the rearadmiral and suggestedthat he strike his flag and return to shore for some needed rest.[173]
St Vincent was as generous in the Channel as he had been in the Mediterranean. A particular letter from England made the admiral host a dinner aboard the flagship for fifty of the officers whom he felt closest to. At the dinner herevealed that the letterwas from an orphanage near Paddington in London. The orphanage had run out of money to support the children of sailors who had died in the service of their country. St Vincent solicited from each captainand lieutenant a sum of money and then added his owndonation. The cutter sailed back to England the same evening.[174] St Vincent gave the orphanage åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£1,000.00[175]
St Vincent's skills as an administrator and logistician came in to play and he issued orders regarding the health and well being of the fleet. St Vincent wrote to Earl Spencer, commenting "I have ever considered the care of the sick and wounded as one ofthe first duties of a Commander-in-chief, by sea or land,".[176] Based on Doctor Baird's advice on cleanliness and hygiene[177] the admiral brought in as many fresh vegetables as he could, along with vastquantities of fresh lemon juice to minimise illness,particularly scurvy. The effect was dramatic. The hospital ship that accompanied the fleet was sent home unneeded and in November 1800 when the fleet came to anchor in Torbay there were as few as sixteen hospital cases amongst the estimated twenty threethousand men.[178] In a letter to Sir Evan Nepean, first secretary to the Admiralty, St Vincent described Baird as "the most valuable man in the Navy notexcepting the Board itself,"[179] The oncoming winter of 1800åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â➪∱1801 forced the admiralto live ashoreatTorre Abbey overlooking Torbay.[180][181] Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Harvey took over operational command of the fleet in St Vincent's absence.[182]
In 1801 in a letter to the Board of Admiralty, St Vincent made the now famous remark: "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. I say only they will not come by sea."[183] In 1801 St Vincent was replaced by Admiral William Cornwallis and thenew Prime Minister Henry Addington promoted St Vincent to First Lord of the Admiralty.[1][184]
First Lord of the Admiralty
In January 1801 St Vincent had written a short letter to the then first Lord Earl Spencer stating: "Nothing short of a radical sweep in the dockyards can cure the enormous evils and corruptions in them; and this cannot be attempted till we have peace."[185] As First Lord St Vincent intended to investigate, discover and remove all of the corruption that he considered plagued the Navy, the Royal Dockyards and their civilian administration. Consequently, he clashed with the various Navy Boards, the civil administration of the Royal Navy that administered amongst other things the navy yards and stores.[186] St Vincent saw these boards and individuals as hindering the efforts of the Navy.[187][188]
The Commission of Inquiry
During the peace with France, after the Treaty of Amiens was signed on 25 March 1802, St Vincent ordered the Navy Board to begin an investigation for fraud and corruption in the Royal Dockyards. He swiftly found that the investigations were not being conducted effectively and ordered the commissioners to retrieve all logs and accounts and inventories and put them under their "personal seal" in anticipation of the Admiralty Board travelling to the various yards itself and conducting their own inspection.[188] The investigation began in earnest in 1802. St Vincent swiftly uncovered casual and obvious abuses of the system. Some men were listed as having done work, then over-time and then acted as night watchmen for years without a break of any kind. Others were listed as workmen ashore but also as sailors receiving pay in the Receiving Ship.[189] Work was done and then the identical work was charged for over various periods, often by different departments or sections.[190] In another yard, "The men of an entire department were found to be incapables, as old, infirm boys, cripples, or idiots, and the department itself to have the appearance of an asylum for every rogue and vagabond that could not obtain a meal by any other means."[190] St Vincent found that minor dockyard officials were the tip of a far bigger corruption. He lobbied the government to create a special commission of inquiry that would have the power to question suspects under oath. The cabinet determined that the outcome of such an inquiry might be damaging politically (and possibly in some cases, personally) and gave theboard of inquiry permission to question suspects under oath but gave the suspects the right to refuse to answer questions that might incriminate themselves. This addendum removed the ability of the inquiry to act effectively in any way.[191] The Commission of Inquiry produced twelve reports:
1. Foreign Yards;
2. the Chatham Chest (the pension fund for seamen);
3. supply of Blocks and Naval Cooperage;
4. prize money and prize causes;
5. the Collection of the sixpence from Merchant Seamen;
6. the Economy of the Naval Yards;
7. the Naval Hospitals and the Hospital ships for French prisoners at Plymouth;
8. the Victualling and Cooperage at Plymouth;
9. the receipt and expenditure of stores at Plymouth;
10. Office of Treasurer of the Navy;
11. the issue of Money Bills;
12. the purchase Stores for the Naval Service more particularly Masts, Spars, Fir and Hemp[191]
One of St Vincent's biographers put the findings of the commission succinctly "The valuable British oak rotted in the forests for want of the axe; the frames building rotted on the stocks for want of timber; the ships at sea rotted before their day because constructed of such worthless perishable materials."[192]
One reform St Vincent did achieve was the introduction of block making machinery at the navy yard in Portsmouth. The machinery was designed by Marc Isambard Brunel and Samuel Bentham. By 1808 forty-five machines were turning out 130,000 pulley blocks peryear. The innovation meant that only ten to thirty unskilled men were able to equal the output of 100 skilled blockmakers and the capital cost of the project was recovered in three years. The revolution ofmachinery enabled the Navy to become self sufficient in regard to the production of the essential blocks. This self sufficiency removed a great deal of corruption, from external contractors producing inferior goods that jeopardised sailors lives, to the corruption that arose from poorly paid officials responsible for awarding contracts and the bribes that might ensue.[193][194][195] The buildings that housed the Block Machinery remain to this day and makeup part of the Historic Portsmouth Dockyard.[196]
As First Lord, St Vincent also determined to build a breakwater in Plymouth.[197] The First Lord commissioned a civil engineer, John Rennie, and Joseph Whidbey, the former Master-Attendant at Woolwich dockyard, to design the breakwater. Work did not beginuntil 1811 but the earl is widely credited as the force behind its construction.[197][198][199]
St Vincent spoke with the King regarding the contribution made by marines to the general service of the Navy and recommended to the King that the prefix "Royal" be added. These were the first official discussions into the retitling of the corps to Royal Marines.[200]
During his tenure, the workers in the Royal dockyards demanded an increase in pay due to an increase in living costs. St Vincent reacted by dismissing the ringleaders and every man who had taken an active role in the strike. He eventually agreed to a small temporary allowance for the purchase of bread whilst the price of bread remained high.[201]
St Vincent's gaze passed over every aspect of the Navy from the Sea Fencibles to the Navy Hospitals. The earl attempted to disband the Sea Fencibles claiming that they were needed only to quiet the fears of little old ladies and that good men passed theirwhole careers without hearing a shot fired.[202] Doctor Baird, St Vincent's personal physician, was appointed to the Sick and Hurt Board as Inspector of all Hospitals.[203]
Powers to promote
Another burden of his promotion to first lord of the Admiralty was that St Vincent was inundated with letters from aspiring officers and their relatives and friends. Soliciting employment from those in positions of influence in the navy had become commonpractice and was a generally accepted method of securing a good posting. The more influence that an officer could draw upon, the better and oftentimes more lucrative the position. Also, due to the peace with France the navy had been reduced and employmentwas scarce. The first lord could not, therefore, provide every officer of influence a position and was obliged to reject many of the letters that he received. Despite St Vincent having declared both publicly and privately that officers would be promotedorgiven position commensurate with their achievements and not based on their political or social influence, the letters continued to flow to the Admiralty.
The ways in which St Vincent chose to communicate the rejections often depended on the number of letters, the individual concerned, or the demands made by their respective well wishers. To the Earl of Portsmouth he wrote: "I cannot possibly agree in opinion with your Lordship, that a person sitting quietly by his fireside, and enjoying very nearly a sinecure, during such a war as we have been engaged in, has the same pretensions to promotion with the man who has exposed his person, and hazarded his constitution in every clime."[204] A harsh rebuff to a peer of the realm. Yet to a lady of no discernible rank or influence he wrote: "Although I cannot admit the force of your argumentin favour of Captain (name unknown) [sic.], there is something so amiable and laudable in a sister contending for the promotion of her brother that no apology was necessary for your letter of the 24th, which I lose no time in acknowledging;"[205]
Famously, when Commander Lord Thomas Cochrane captured the 32-gun Spanish frigate El Gamo in the 14-gun sloop HMS Speedy a promotion was the usual reward for such a feat of skill and seamanship. It would be fair to argue that it would have been expected by both the commander and his friends and family. Unfortunately for Cochrane, the ship carrying the letter of that victory was intercepted and it was only received after he had himself been captured by theFrench and was facing a court-martial over the lossof his ship. A court-martial for losing one's ship was common practice at the time and in many cases, including Cochrane's, it was only a formality. It was only when Cochrane wascleared by the court that he could be promoted. Unfortunately the commanderthought that the First Lord had deliberately withheld the promotion due to an unforeseen grudge; he held this opinion for the rest of his life.[206] Cochrane had many powerful friends and relatives who lobbied continuously on his behalf. These solicitationsmay have had a negative effect on Cochrane's career as it is possible that Jervis became irritated by them.
Resignation as First Lord
The detailed investigation into corruption that St Vincent began caused him to become extremely unpopular as many influential men were involved in the various money making schemes perpetrated. The board of inquiry set up by St Vincent was responsible forthe impeachment of Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville and his trial for misappropriation of public funds. St Vincent had made an enemy of Pitt and Pitt used the naval reform and its unpopularity to attackthe First Lord and the Addington administration.[207][208] St Vincent left the office on May 14, 1804 when Addington was replaced as Prime Minister by Pitt.[209] Lord Howick, second son of St Vincent's friend Sir Charles Grey came to his defence and with the assistance of Charles James Fox moved for a vote of thanks in the Commons for St Vincent's tireless efforts in naval reform in 1806. Fox had said of St Vincent's appointment in 1801 "allow me to say,that I do not think it would be easy, if possible, to find a man in the whole community better suited,or more capable of the high office he fills, than the distinguished person at the head of the Admiralty åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â⥤⑋ I mean the Earl of StVincent." and had continued his support of the Earl throughout his time as first lord.[210][211]
Resumption of command
On 9 November 1805 St Vincent was promoted admiral of the red.[212] He took command of the Channel fleet once more in the 110-gun first-rate HMS Hibernia.[213] During his tenure in command he spent much of his time at a house thathe rented in the villageof Rame.[214] Once again he issued the orders that had become so effective in the Mediterranean and his previous Channel command.[215] Once again these orders proved unpopular.[216] For a short time in 1806 he gave command of the Channel fleet to his second-in-command Sir Charles Cotton in order that he might travel to Portugal on a particular mission.[213] Portugal was under threat of invasion and St Vincent had been ordered, ifnecessary to take the Portuguese court to its colony in Brazil. The invasionofPortugal was delayed and St Vincent was recalled to the Channel fleet. It was Sir Sidney Smith and Graham Moore who led the Royal family to safety inBrazil.[217] St Vincent had long suffered from poor health and a change in government led to his resignation on 24 April 1807.[218]
The Earl had always attempted to promote on merit rather than patronage and had become increasingly frustrated with the system of preferment by social rank and not competence. At his retirement in 1807 he had an audience with theKing. The King asked if the navy were a better institution now than it had been on St Vincent's entrance into it. St Vincent replied that it was not. He stated: "Sire I have always thought that a sprinkling of nobility was very desirable in the Navy, as it gives some sort of consequence to the service; but at present the Navy is so overrun by the younger branches of nobility, and the sons of Members of Parliament and they so swallow up all the patronage and so choke the channel to promotion, that the son of an old Officer, howevermeritorious both their services may have been, has little or no chance of getting on." He continued on "I would rather promote the son of an old deserving Officer than of any noble in the land."[219]
In a letter dated 18 October 1806 to Viscount Howick, then the First Lord. "If you will, my good Lord, bring a bill into Parliament to disqualify any Officer under the rank of Rear-Admiral to sit in the House of Commons, the Navymay be preserved; but while a little, drunken, worthless jackanapes is permitted to hold the seditious language he has done, in the presence of Flag-officers of rank, you will require a man of greater health and vigour than I possess to command your fleets."[220] Presumably St Vincent was referring to a particular member of Parliament although his feelings on the subject remain clear.
Earl St Vincent in retirement
Final years
In his retirement he seldom took his seat in the House of Lords and made his last appearance in either 1810 or 1811. During these final years St Vincent gave generously to various charities, organisations and individuals. He donated åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£500.00 to thewoundedand survivors of the Battle of Waterloo and åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£300.00 to relieve starvation in Ireland.[221] St Vincent also donated åⲥâ➽¤åⲤä£100.00 to the building of a Jewish chapel in Whitechapel, London.[222] In 1807 St Vincent, as a member of the Houseof Lords, opposed abill to abolish the slave trade. His motives appear to have been practical rather than humanitarian or otherwise.[223] St Vincent argued that if Britain were to ban the trade it would simply be continued by other countries and therebyBritain would lose therevenue generated and be weakened accordingly. St Vincent spoke in opposition to the Convention of Sintra[224] He spoke against the Walcheren Campaign andthen condemned its failure, although conspicuously excluded the failure of itsofficers and men.[225]St Vincent spoke in defence of Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore's retreat through Spain and Portugal and condemned the government and army commanders for failure to support him thoroughly.[225] In 1816 his wife Martha died at Rochetts in Essex.[226] Thecouple had no children. In the winter of 1818åⲥä¢å¢â➽¤â⥥ å¢â➪⤄â➪∱1819 St Vincent went to recover his health in France.[227] When he arrived at Toulon he was greeted by AdmiralEdouard Missiessy who said of St Vincent that he was: "asmuch the father of the French as of theEnglish Navy."[228]
Further honours
In 1800 St Vincent was made an honorary lieutenant-general of Marines[229] and in 1814 was promoted to general.[230][231] These positions were little more than a sinecure and carried no official duties. In 1801 St Vincent had beencreated Viscount St Vincent of Meaford, Staffordshire.[232] a position that because he had no children passed to his nephew, Edward Jervis Ricketts. In 1806 he had was appointed as one of the thirty one elder brothers of TrinityHouse. The elder brothers along with the master formthe court of Trinity House. In 1809 St Vincent was honoured by John VI of Portugal who awarded him the Royal Portuguese Military Order of the Tower and Sword in order to commemorate the safe arrival of the Royal Family in Brazil, after Napoleon had invaded Portugal.[230][233] In May 1814 he was promoted acting admiral of the fleet and commander-in-chief of the Channel squadron. He was confirmed Admiral of the fleet on the 29 January 1820 and George IV sent him a gold topped baton[234] as a symbol of theoffice.[235] The baton is currently held in the collections of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.[236] On 2 January 1815 he was made Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath when the order was rearranged by the Prince Regent. The knight grand crossis the highest rank in the order.[237]
Death and memorial
St Vincent died on 13 March 1823 and, because he had no children, the Barony of Jervis became extinct. His nephew, Edward Jervis Ricketts, became the Viscount St Vincent and changed his surname to Jervis, becoming Edward Jervis Jervis in honour of his uncle.[233] St Vincent was buried at Stone in Staffordshire, in the family mausoleum, at his own request[238] and a monument was erected in St. Paul's Cathedral.
At least three ships and two stone frigates (or shore establishments) have been named HMS St Vincent either in honour of the Earl or after that battle that he won. Jervis, was a J-class destroyer launched just prior to the SecondWorld War, was named afterthe Admiral. HMS Jervis served throughout the war. She was known as a lucky ship as, despite taking part in several actions, she never lost a man to enemy fire.[239] HMS Jervis Bay, an armed merchant cruiser which was lost in heroic circumstances, was indirectly named after him.
Jervis has also been remembered in schools in England. He has a boarding house (Saint Vincent) named in his honour at the Royal Hospital School.[240] Saint Vincent College in Gosport, England is also named after the admiral.[241]
As with many other officers during the great age of discovery there are several areas of the world named in the earl's honour. Cape Jervis, South Australia and Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia were named for him as was the town of Vincentia and Jervis Bay National Park. The County of St Vincent, New South Wales was also named in his honour.[242]
Though Jervis clearly had a strong impact during the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards on the development of the Navy, surprisingly few contemporary biographies of Jervis are available, and those are seriously lacking in breadth andthoroughness. The most recent work related to Jervis is The Remaking of the English Navy by Admiral St. Vincent: The Great Unclaimed Naval Revolution by Charles Arthur, 1986, but this focused more on Jervis's reforms to the docks,and less to other parts of his life. Evelyn Berkman's Nelson's Dear Lord: Portrait of St. Vincent (1962), as the bibliographer Eugene Rasor points out, is merely an "effort" to create a biography.The same bibliographer says muchthe same about William Milbourne James's "Old Oak": The Life of John Jervis, Earl St. Vincent (1950) and Owen Sherrard's A life of Lord St. Vincent (1933), pointing to both as mediocre. Ruddock Mackay published an article[when?] in Mariner's Mirror which documented the early life of Jervis.[243]
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
Jervis, John 1St Earl Of St Vincent 1797, First Lord Of The Admiralty 1801 (I104541)
112092 {geni:occupation} Butcher
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:05
Treibitsch, Albert Benjamin (I102720)
112093 {geni:occupation} Coal merchant
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:31
Sidnell, William Noble (I103722)
112094 {geni:occupation} delivery man for Eaton's
DATE 10 JUN 2012
TIME 07:47:29
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:31
Jenner, David Arthur Redvers (I103524)
112095 {geni:occupation} Engineer
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:32
Kay, James Murray (I102405)
112096 {geni:occupation} farrier
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:30
Libby, William Joseph (I104218)
112097 {geni:occupation} Farrier
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:30
Libby, Joseph (I100648)
112098 {geni:occupation} Home maker
DATE 10 JUN 2012
TIME 06:23:41
DATE 10 JUN 2012
TIME 06:24:07
DATE 10 JUN 2012
TIME 06:25:35
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:30
Libby, Coral Alicia Emma (I100951)
112099 {geni:occupation} Home maker
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:31
Jenner, Doreen Elizabeth (I104163)
112100 {geni:occupation} Homemaker
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:03
Schwartzberg, Jenny (I103836)
112101 {geni:occupation} IBM executive

{geni:hair_color} Blond

{geni:eye_color} Blue

{geni:height_1} 5 feet

{geni:height_2} 11 inches
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:08
Korman, Neil (I104513)
112102 {geni:occupation} Mariner
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:31
Sidnell, Samuel (I103600)
112103 {geni:occupation} Master builder
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:30
Sidnell, Samuel (I101883)
112104 {geni:occupation} Miner
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:32
Mellen, Thomas (I101155)
112105 {geni:occupation} Rector of Meaford
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 17:33:10
Jervis, Swynfen (I104336)
112106 {geni:occupation} Representative, Importer
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:29
Sidnell, Bertrand Stanley Charles (I102538)
112107 {geni:occupation} Retired
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:03
Schwartzberg, Sara (I104494)
112108 {geni:occupation} Retired
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 07:24:04
Greener, Fred (I104354)
112109 {geni:occupation} Shoemaker
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:32
Rayson, John (I101194)
112110 {geni:occupation} Streets supervisor
DATE 30 MAY 2012
TIME 09:08:31
Jenner, David Jack (I100974)

      «Prev «1 ... 221 222 223 224 225